Compared By :

Dyah Prameswari


Bogem, Tamanmartani, Kalasan, Sleman, Yogyakarta

Februari, 2010


Human life can not be separated from its surroundings. Both the natural environment and social environment. We need air from the atmosphere to breathe. We need our environment to eat, to drink, and to keep our health.

Environment is defined as anything that surrounds humans that influence the development of human life, whether directly or indirectly. Environment can be divided into biotic and a-biotic environment. Biotic environment is the environment in which a living creature, such as  plants, animals, and human live. Whereas a-biotic environment is the environment in which the form of inanimate objects like air, water, soil and others.
In particular, we often use the term environment to name all things that can affect the viability of all living things on earth.
According to Law No. 23 In 1997,  environment is a unity of space and  all living things and the unity of living things including man and his behavior  to establish the life and welfare of human beings and other living creatures.
The elements of the environment can be categorized into three, namely:
1. Biological elements (biotic)
Elements of biological (biotic), the environmental element of  living creatures, like humans, animals, plants, and micro-organism.
2. Socio – Cultural Elements
The Socio-cultural elements are the social and cultural environment made by men which becomes a system of values, ideas, and beliefs to behave as social beings. Society can achieve regularity due to a system of values and norms that are recognized and adhered  by all members of society.
3. Physical Elements (a-biotic)
Physical elements (a-biotic), are the environmental elements which consist of inanimate objects such as land, water, air, climate, and others. The existence of the physical environment has a very big role for the survival of all life on earth. Imagine what happens when there is no water on the earth or when the air is full of smoke? Of course, life on earth would not take place naturally. There will be a drought, abundant animals and dead plants, the climate change which is unpredictable, the emerge of various diseases, and so on.
The resources that can be explored through biotic environments cause an over exploitation on these resources. The increasing of human needs has also led to excessive exploitation. Because these resources are very limited of course we need to preserve these resources.
Currently we find a lot of environmental damage which are still in its early stage or has been in fatal damage. There are various factors that cause environmental damage. Based on the factors, the forms of environmental damage can be divided into 2 types, namely:
I. The Environmental Damage Due to Natural Events
Various forms of natural disasters that recently hit Indonesia has a lot of impact damage to the environment. The horrifying tsunami that cast away the Terrace of Mecca and Nias, and the 5-scale Richter earthquake that flattened  Yogyakarta and surrounding areas, are examples of natural phenomena in which can change the face of the earth.
Other natural events that affect the environmental damage, among others:
a. Volcanic eruptions
Volcanic eruptions occurred because the magma activity in the bowels of the earth which led to strong pressure out through the top of the volcano.
Hazards posed by volcanic eruptions between
Another form of:
1) The rain of volcanic ash, causing respiratory problems.
2) Hot Lava, destructive, and deadly pass anything.
3) Hot clouds, can kill living things .
4) toxic gases.
5) solid material (rock, gravel, sand), can happen to housing, and others.
b. Earthquakes
An earthquake is the shake of the Earth’s crust that can be caused by several things, including the activities of the magma (volcanic activity), the soil down, and because of plate movement at the bottom of the ocean. Humans can measure the intensity of the earthquake, but man is unable to predict when the earthquake happens.
Therefore, the danger posed by the earthquake is more powerful than volcanic eruptions. When the earthquake took place there were some incidents as a direct or indirect result of  it, including:
1) The collapsed building .
2) The break/crack on the earth’s surface, the road to end.
3) Soil erosion due to shocks.
4) There was a flood, due to damage to the dike.
5) The earthquake which occurred on the ocean floor can cause a tsunami (tidal wave).
c. Hurricane
The tornado caused the air flow from high pressure areas to the low pressure one.
This air pressure difference occurs because the temperature difference is striking. The very bad storm for countries in the Pacific region and the Atlantic Ocean is a common thing. In the region of California, Texas, until in Asia such as Korea and Taiwan, the danger of hurricane is just an annual disaster  But for Indonesia it is only felt in the mid-2007. This shows that climate change has occurred in Indonesia, which is the  symptoms caused by global warming.
Hurricane hazards can be predicted through satellite images depicting the state of the earth’s atmosphere, including images hurricane formation, direction, and speed. The hurricane attack (tornado) can cause environmental damage in the form of:
1) ruining the building.
2) Damaging to agriculture and plantation areas.
3) Endangering  flights.
4) Causing huge waves that can sink ships.
II. Environmental damage due to Human Factors
Human beings as rulers in the earth’s environment play a major role in determining the preservation of their environment. Human beings as creatures of God who understand the world can change the face of world from the simple life patterns to modern life forms today. Unfortunately, what people have done is not followed by  a deep thinking about the future life of the next generation. Thevarious progress which is achieved by humans has caused the devastating effect on the environment .
Some forms of environmental damage due to human factors, among others are:
a. Pollution (pollution of air, water, soil, and voice) as the impact of the industrial area.
b. Floods, as a result of poor drainage or sewage system and errors in maintaining watershed and the impact of forest destruction.
c. Landslides, as the direct impact of forest destruction.
Some human activity is either directly or indirectly will have impact on environmental damage, among others are:
a. Illegal logging (deforestation).
b. Poaching.
c. Destroying mangrove forests.
d. Pilling up the swamp for settlement.
e. Waste disposal in any place.
f. Building logging in watersheds (DAS).
g. The over use of natural resource .
The factors mentioned above need the proper handling so that the resources in our environment will be preserved so that it still can be harnessed by the next generation.
The resources mentioned above is not always mine products which brings money, such as gold, coal, tin and others. The real example that we face everyday is water. Water is a basic need for every living thing. Its existence is very universal and is always required by every living thing. However, water consumption is not in accordance with the efforts to preserve water. The decrease of water source is also caused by water pollution. There are several causes of water pollution, among others, are  pollutants such as household garbage, industrial waste valleys, the remnants of fertilizers or pesticides from agricultural areas, hospital waste, waste manure, particulate-solid particulates of forest fires and erupting volcanoes or erosion of sediment places in its path.
The followings are the classification  of water pollution sources:
1. Organic contaminants, which can be or cannot be decomposed  by microorganisms.
2. Inorganic contaminants, can be heavy metals, mineral (inorganic salts such as sulfate, phosphate, halogenida, nitrate)
3. Pollutants in the form of sediment / soil or mud sediments.
4. Pollutants in the form of radioactive substances
5. Pollutants in the form of heat

Since the water pollution has caused the reduction in the amount of clean water that is consumed by lots of people, it may be possible that the water will be extinct. Many people is lack an understanding about the danger water extinction on earth. They just use and continue to use regardless of how to conserve water in order to stay available as a very important requirement for us. The government has made efforts to preserve water resources. By promoting reforestation in protected forests. But of course the way is still very little to maintain the presence of water.
One way to preserve the water is to keep the fertility of the water resorption areas. This method is effective because it required a lot of water  areas for rainwater to be stored in the soil as ground water  has many uses in everyday life.
Biopori is one type of media that water absorption is easy and effective. Biopori absorption hole is water absorption method intended to overcome the floods by  increasing  the power of water resorption in the soil. This method was coined by Dr. R Kamir Brata, one researcher from the Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Improving water resources in the ground resorption is done by making a hole in the ground and fill it with organic waste to produce compost. By adding organic waste on this hole it can then feed the soil fauna, which is so capable of creating pores in the soil. This simple technology was later called by the name Biopori.
Naturally, Biopori are small holes in the ground formed by the activity of soil organisms like worms or roots movement in the soil. These holes will be filled with air and water flow. So the rain water will not go straight into the sewer water, but seep into the ground through the hole.
However, in urban areas, more trees are cut for buildings so that the hole Biopori become increasingly scarce. After all, many trees does not always mean there will be plenty of water is absorbed, because the surface of the moss-covered ground makes the water can not seep into the ground.
To overcome these problems, then the hole was made for resorptions or man-made wells which are now known as Biopori holes. Biopori can be made in the front yard, back yard or garden of the house. Biopori hole itself is generally made with a width of about 30 cm, the distance between holes of about 50 cm-100 cm.
We will not be in vain if this makes Biopori. The Benefits that we can get are, among others:
1. To Prevent flooding
Flood disaster itself has become detrimental to the citizens of Jakarta. The presence of Biopori holes can be the answer to these problems. Imagine if every home, office or any building in Jakarta has Biopori means the amount of water that rushed into the soil of many others and can prevent the occurrence of floods.
2. As Organic garbage
The number of garbage has caused a separate problem in the city of Jakarta. We can also help reduce this problem by separating our household waste into organic and non organic. For organic waste we can dispose of in a hole Biopori that we make.
3. To Fertilize crops
Organic waste that we throw in the hole Biopori is food for organisms in the soil. These organisms can make waste into compost which is a fertilizer for plants in the vicinity.
4. Improving the quality of ground water
Organisms in the soil can make a waste minerals which can dissolve in water. The result, the quality of ground water because it contains minerals.
To make Biopori holes (LRB) is actually very easy. It doesn’t only cost much, but also doesn’t take too much space. Even the wider community can make this LRB at home respectively. Although this is only a very small business, but if the implementation can be carried out simultaneously by people who still have enough productive land it  would be able to preserve clean water which is urgently needed. So we will no longer see the event of drought or water crisis.
Therefore Biopori making programs for the home requires a lot of support by socializing to people and giving understanding  to preserve water resource.
If the encouragement of Biopori program has been established, it is impossible for us to save a lot of water absorption, so we will no longer meet the water crisis. Because one function of  Biopori itself is to keep or store the rain water. Because when the rain does not have a place to be accommodated, then the phenomenon of flood is increasing.
It is commonly known  now that especially in big cities it is very difficult to find water absorption areas, and this will causes flood. Biopori is also considered quite effective because it does not require much  land/space to construct. So that people can make use of Biopori as a means to preserve water.



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